We live in a world where children with disabilities are discriminated across the globe. The shear nature of our society is based on trying to improve things and never settling for individual differences that make us unique.
In my line of work, I find that more time is spent finding a “better” place for a child to be educated than trying to make the existing school placement more accessible. It is much easier to say that this child does not belong than to be challenged by individual differences. Surely, this goes against the ethos of inclusion which is about acceptance. The most important and crucial fear factor that children or young people with disabilities have is how far they will be accepted by their societies and the people they interact with on a daily basis.
We make the assumption that it is only the people that care about them who have a responsibility to include but the reality is that we all do. Society has a lot to do with the way we shape our perception of disability.
I learnt this week that the history and foundations of special education is based on segregation rather than inclusion. Look it up if you don’t believe me.
It’s too late to change our collective history now. The truth is that people with disabilities are at a disadvantage, but there are things that we can do to stop the segregation and exclusion from getting worse.
What actions do you take which support the inclusion of individuals with unique characteristics and differences?
Including them once doesn’t go far enough. How do you help others to understand and embrace individual difference?
In the midst of the global picture, I felt it necessary to share a perspective for any readers to consider.
In 2015, I briefly worked for a wonderful organisation called Arrival Education that very simply provided opportunities for those from low socioeconomic (significant BAME percentage) communities with academic potential to get experience within the corporate world to promote upward social mobility. I lasted a week in that job, not because of the organisation but I knew that I had a greater passion for working with children who had special educational needs. In that week, I learnt that not everybody has the same opportunities in life and this ultimately affects their trajectory and anybody else they decide to bring into this world. Yes, there are stories of those that make it through adversity and become successful but they are the minority.
In the UK, an inquiry report by the Office of the Children’s Commissioner showed that a black, disabled (SEN) , male child on free school meals is 168 times more likely to be excluded that a white female child without a disability and does not receive free school meals. The report is based on data that is now 10 years old but I suspect if there is another similar report then not much would have changed.
A study by Oxford University looked into the unequal representation of ethnic minorities in Special Education in England. It found that black Carribbean pupils are twice as likely to be identified as having social, emotional and mental health needs.
In sharp contrast, there was a study published in the journal, Autism, that looked how race might influence parental reporting of Autistic Spectrum symptoms. Black parents reported fewer concerns about their child’s ASD-specific behaviours than White parents. One of the things to be considered for further research would be the cultural factors that may influence how these concerns are reported as I grew up in an African household where I see lots of relatives with quite clear social communication difficulties and learning needs which are never acknowledged or addressed.
The examples I have provided you with above highlight some of the ways in which the learning experience and what may affect your experience is different depending on your race. Some are disadvantaged because through poor identification of their needs and others because through lack of knowledge, are unable to robustly challenge the quality of the education their child receives.
Whilst this specific post is not solely related to special education, it is totally relevant to an inclusive educator. Inclusive education is about “levelling the playing field” and closing the gap by breaking down any barriers that affect equality. By definition, a level playing field is a situation in which everyone has the same chance of succeeding. For those from the Black community, I do not feel it is a level playing field and the research will show you that if you take the time to look. I am fortunate enough to overcome adversity and continue the conversation from the other side but it is tough. If you add the complexity of a learning need or disability on top, the potential for inequality is compounded through something that you cannot help or control.
I’d like to give a special shout out to anyone trying to level the playing field. Let’s do more and be more creative.
Attention is often something that we all struggle with maintaining at some point during the day but it is something the majority of us can do successfully. One of the things that often comes across when assessing the learning needs of a child is their ability to focus and attend to the task or instruction at hand. I often here quotes from teachers and professionals about a child’s inability to focus and the impact this has on his/her ability to make progress but if the inclusive educator gave it more thought, one of the biggest things that affects attention and focus is motivation. For example, the pre-schooler with Autism being more motivated by his own agenda than the one set by educator or the primary school child with ADHD is more motivated by the reaction from his peers than the learning content because he finds greater success in making them laugh than completing the learning task set.
Why focus on inclusive education?
The reason I have chosen to focus on inclusive education is to make sure that strong consideration is given for the impact of considering the individual within the context he or she finds himself in. Some parts of the world are much more inclusive than others. I am fortunate to live in a society that is much more accepting of individual differences but even within this, injustice takes place on a daily basis. A child or young person with disability/additional needs is the anomaly and he/she has to find away to “fit in” whether this is a conscious and understood thought by the child or not.
The child or young person cannot change the fact that he or she is different but we can always change the way we approach things to help that child make progress and society to understand that not everyone is born the same but there is a place for that person to feel welcome or have a sense of achievement and belonging.
What areas of inclusive education need to be focused on the most?
From birth, the dream of a parent is for their child to be as independent as possible when they reach adulthood and from the very beginning, all the skills they learn are in preparation for this. For the child (having been one myself), it’s that their differences are accepted and they are not discriminated (positively or negatively) as a result of this. One of the areas that could make a real difference for the children is how teaching assistants are used within the classroom. In many countries across the world, teaching assistants are used to facilitate the learning of the child but depending on the level and frequency of interactions they have with the child, there is research to show that this could have an adverse on their learning. I suppose that part of the reason this blog exists is to help decided what areas of inclusive education do truly need to be discussed and debated the most across the world. I often debate with my colleagues whether it is practice or policy that has the greatest influence on a positive learning experience for a child or young person. I have never reached a conclusion to this but would love to hear all views on this.
What’s the best way to switch this focus?
There is not enough of a focus on inclusive education in my opinion. I think a large reason for this is because it is not always well understood. The best way to switch the focus to making education more inclusive is to simply keep discussing it. Discussions influence research and research influences policy and/or practice. What more do you think could be done to drive the inclusive education agenda?
The job of an inclusive educator is often quite thankless. The parents are most grateful because our job supports the progress and independence of their beloved children and sometimes depending on individual circumstances, we might be more ecstatic than the parent because we’ve worked really to ensure that the child or young person is given every opportunity to suceed . If you think about it, we celebrate the smallest steps of progress.
One of the things that I enjoy most about this line of work is shifting attitudes and perspectives on inclusive education and special educational needs.
Not everyone will be grateful for the work that we do but I don’t know about you, sometimes that spurs me on. I find joy in the fact that I want to give someone a fighting chance when not everyone does.
Research shows that the attitude of teachers are essential to the success of inclusive education programs for children with special needs (Avramidis & Norwich, 2002). This is also dependent on the country and type of special educational need and/or disability.
Generally speaking, most educators (in my experience) do have positive attitudes about special needs but if it gets tough, it becomes less about the educator’s ability and more about the child’s needs, which I think should always be challenged. The role of the inclusive educator is to find a way include the child. I am no expert but I imagine that is not an easy thing to do however it is where the inclusive educator finds their greatest success stories and children/young people are most grateful. This applies to all fields and disciplines, not just the class teachers and teaching assistants. How has your work helped to include a child despite their differences?
It is not easy for the child or young person to always be different but I bet they are grateful every time someone gives them an opportunity to suceed.
What is your motivation? I’m grateful to all inclusive educators out there who are invested in levelling the playing field for some of our most vulnerable members of the world.
The Institute of Education at University College London has helpfully provided learning resources to support home-schooling for children with social, emotional and mental health needs. A quick browse prompted me to think about what is the best thing a child or young person with additional needs can take from this situation. For children with social, emotional and mental health needs, this experience must bring up a range of questions for the parents/carers who have to teach their child why this has happened and how this affects them as well as try to get them to do some Maths & English.
It’s quite a challenge for the inclusive educator in these circumstances. Whilst progress against the curriculum is important for a child’s academic progress, what’s more important is that the children understand why this is happening and what they can do to support the situation. There’s always a learning opportunity in every situation.
I spoke to a parent of a child with quite severe ADHD earlier this week. I asked her how she was coping home-schooling her child. She replied, “The questions don’t stop, he’s more worried about everyone dying than doing the work”. I advised her that it’s more important for the child’s emotional state to be calmed before engaging in any learning activity. I’m a big fan of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (visual representation below). If you look at Maslow’s (1943) theory , feeling safe and secure is absolutely essential to human motivation for anything and I think it’s important that this is applied to the context of home schooling in the midst of a global pandemic. There is no doubt in my mind that this parent isn’t the only person in this situation right now.
A few days ago, I read a blog post from GEM Report about the impact of school closures and the prospect of this being extended to the summer holidays. Typically, the summer closure of schools is welcomed by most as a rest for children who have spent the entire year absorbing new information in a highly structured learning environment but this year might be different. I think our first priority should always be health & wellbeing but if the school closures are extended to the summer holidays, then that is a considerable length of time away from a structured learning environment.
What do you think could be done to support children in reintegrating back into school? Particularly for those with emotional and mental health needs? Does anyone have any other thoughts they’d like to contribute?
The link to the resources provided by UCL can be found here:
The world appears to be an unjust place for anyone with unique attributes. Whether it be the colour of their skin, the accent they speak with or their physical appearance. For children with learning and physical disabilities, the idea of integrating with society is something that is important to them and the way we see them as educators influences that process. The term “educator” is not solely reserved for those responsible for the facilitation of learning, I am literally talking about all who influence the learning and education process from both sides:
a) anybody who influences how the disadvantaged learner views the world
b) anybody who influences how the world views the disadvantaged learner
If you can relate to this then you are in the right place. Around here it’s all about challenging barriers and finding solutions rather than making do. Nobody asks to be born with learning or physical disabilities and therefore the responsibility of including them in what we do is a collective responsibility to educate.
Speaking from my own personal experience, the learner often knows they are different in some way which is absolutely fine, I think it is important that they understand and embrace this. But what needs to change is that the child should not feel that he or she is at a disadvantage as a result of their uniqueness.
Hello everyone. Thank you for taking the time to visit my site. I am truly humbled and privileged to be writing to you.
I have decided to start a public blog because I think across the world there are different practices and policies all concerned with the development of inclusive education but to varying degrees. It is quite clear that across the world, people with additional learning needs and/or disabilities have varying levels of support and expertise. I wanted to create a space where discussions can be held across a range of different contexts and disciplines to try and improve practice and policy on an individual level. This blog will particularly focus on children/young people from 5 to 16 as I think inclusive education is most effective and necessary within this age bracket given that is the rough compulsory schooling age across most developed countries. Although, there are likely to be posts related to children much young and adults much older.
I want to discuss policy, practice, research and resources that are being used across the world. I chose the name “The Inclusive Educator” because the ultimate goal is to support everyone in becoming more inclusive in their education practice. Whether you’re a parent trying to support your disabled child to play with other children or a teacher trying to get a child with ADHD to stay in the classroom longer.
I am pro-mainstream and believe that all children should have access to a mainstream education irrespective of their needs. I equally recognise that mainstream education may not be right for every child but every parent should have the right to at least try and see if their child can be successful in mainstream education.
I honestly would love to connect with anyone who has a genuine passion for special needs, disabilities or inclusive education. I want to connect with teachers, professionals, consultants, researchers, parents, adults with disabilities who can now reflect on their childhood experiences. Literally, if you have something to contribute to the discussion, please feel free to do so.
I am not going to be able to do this all myself as I can only speak from one perspective so I would welcome anyone to get in touch if they would like to contribute.
If I continue this blog successfully for a year, I hope to have a platform for open discussion and dialogue about inclusive education and people leave the blog more confident in their practice than when they first saw my page. There is no correct answer to every question and you will not find an inclusive education manual here as every child and situation is different but what you will find is an opportunity to reflect and try new things.